Facilitating Searches in Multiple Bibliographical Databases: Metadata Harvesting Service Providers
Facilitating Searches in Multiple Bibliographical Databases: Metadata Harvesting Service Providers
Mangala Anil Hirwade, Lecturer, Department of Library & Information Science, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, hirwade2004@indiatimes.com
Mohini T. Bherwani, Librarian, Shri Binzani City College, Umrer Road, Nagpur, mohinibherwani@yahoo.co.in
Abstract

A metadata harvester is a software package that reads data from servers, writes it to databases, implements various kinds of searches, and writes HTML files to display the results. In this paper sixty metadata harvesting service providers have been studied. The study reviewed metadata generation, preservation and harvesting, and various technical issues arising at these stages.

Key Words
metadata; metadata interoperability; harvesting; OAI-PMH; service providers; data providers
1. Introduction

In the digital environment new methodologies of information management and access, coupled with advancements in digital information systems, have transformed to a great extent the ways and means of information management. Metadata, the systematic arrangement of data elements, aids the identification and location of information resources, thereby facilitating improved access to them. However, there exists unpredictability in terms of the availability, accessibility and authenticity of digital objects. Many search mechanisms retrieve a plethora of information resources, but the majority lack effectiveness and comprehensiveness.

2. Objectives

The objectives of the present study are

  • to discuss the importance of metadata harvesting service providers for the next generation library interface.

  • to trace various metadata harvesting service providers.

  • to study the technical details, features, metadata generation and preservation tools, server requirements, metadata elements and user support system used by those metadata harvesting service providers.

3. Methodology

The study focuses on the current status of sixty metadata harvesting service providers. The paper is largely based on a review of the literature, both online and print. The data for this paper was downloaded from the official websites of these metadata harvesting service providers during July–August 2009.

4. Review of Literature
4.1 Defining Metadata

Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource. Metadata is often called data about data or information about information ( UKOLN website)

4.2 Interoperability

Interoperability in relation to metadata is search interoperability, or the ability to perform a search over diverse sets of metadata records and obtain meaningful results. Different individuals or organisations may have created metadata according to the same scheme or they may have applied of multiple schemes, as different metadata schemes serve distinct needs and audiences. Complementary schemes can be used to describe the same resource for multiple purposes and to serve a number of user groups (Baker, 2009).

There is a need to interrelate sources and types of information with different formats, data structures and description standards. Using metadata to record data about information sources allows an initial assessment of compatibility and provides an avenue for merging information or for exchanging information between systems. Interoperability is the ability of multiple systems with different hardware and software platforms, data structures and interfaces to exchange data with minimal loss of context and functionality (ALCTS/CCS Committee on Cataloging, 2000).

4. 3 Metadata Harvesting

A metadata harvesting service harvests or indexes metadata from open access initiative (OAI) compliant archives or repositories through harvesting software that supports a protocol known as the Open Access Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). It is designed for better sharing and retrieval of e-prints residing in distributed archives, allow resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together and giving location of information (Hodge, 2003).

Harvesting refers to the activity of searching for and collecting metadata from Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Institutional Repositories (IR's) whose content is indexed and posted for open use from a World Wide Web server. An OAI harvester is software that performs the job of regularly ‘visiting’ open access databases that have informed the harvester of their existence. The harvested metadata is accrued in a database that can then be searched. The harvester's creator decides what services to provide on top of this data, for example, searching and cross-linking. The harvester can be set to harvest only metadata on a specific subject, from a select group of data providers, or from all available open access databases. The harvested metadata is archived and preserved. The Institutional Repositories commit to upgrade accessibility as technology changes. The OAI/PHM protocol is an international standard of classification fields for any item that is shared in an OAI archive such as author, content description, abstract, type of file, and other ‘tags’ that classify content in ways that can be stored and retrieved from a data base server (Coleman, 2008).

4.4 Metadata Harvesting Protocol

As the term denotes, a metadata harvesting protocol sets rules or guidelines for harvesting metadata.

In order to facilitate metadata harvesting, there ought to be some agreement on aspects such as: the transport protocol (HTTP or FTP etc.), the metdata format (Dublin Core, MARC, etc.); metadata quality assurance (mandatory element set, name and subject conventions, etc.) and intellectual property and usage rights.

The OAI protocol for metadata harvesting provides an application-independent interoperability framework which can be used by a variety of communities who are engaged in publishing content on the web. It provides a set of rules that defines the communication between systems such as FTP or HTTP on the internet. That is why even though the protocol actually uses HTTP as a transport mechanism between digital libraries, it is popularly known as the ‘HTTP of digital libraries’.

There are two classes of players in the OAI-PMH framework: data providers, which administer systems that support the OAI-PMH as a means of exposing metadata, and service providers, which use metadata harvested via the OAI-PMH as a basis for building value-added services.

The protocol based on HTTP and XML was developed with the objective to ensure interoperability between e-print repositories only. Later, in version 1.0/1.1, all document-like digital objects were brought within its purview, and finally the latest version 2.0 supports all kinds of digital resources.

It must be emphasised that OAI-PMH is not a search engine or a search tool or a database. It only provides a set of rules for moving the metadata (not the content) of the digital resource from one repository to another. The content remains in the source repository. A repository can act both as a service provider or harvester and data provider, or only as a service provider or data provider. The protocol is not restricted to supporting simple metadata (unqualified Dublin Core), but can support any metadata schema which can be provided in an XML format (Munshi, 2009).

5. Analysis and Interpretation
5. 1 Metadata harvesting service providers

A total of sixty metadata harvesting service providers were traced during the study; they were grouped as shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Basic details of metadata service providers.

Sr. No. Name of the Harvesting Service Abbreviation used URL Name of the parent body
1 Search Digital Library SDL http://drtc.isibang.ac.in/sdl/ DRTC, Bangalore
2 Scientific journal publishing in India SJPI http://144.16.72.144/harvester/ NCSI, IISc
3 Search engine for engineering digital repositories SEED http://eprints.iitd.ac.in/seed/ IIT, Delhi
4 Open J Gate Open J Gate www.openj-.gate.com Informatics India Ltd
5 Open Index Initiative Open Index http://oii.igidr.ac.in Indira Gandhi Institute of Development ResearchReserve Bank of India, Government of India
6 Knowledge Harvester Knowledge Harvester http://61.16.154.195/harvester INSA, India
7 Cross Archive Search Service for Indian Repositories CASSIR http://casin.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/oai/; http://ardb4.ncsi.iisc-.ernet.in/oai/ National Centre for Science Information, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
8 Prototype digital archive of Indian aerospace research P-DAINAR www.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in National Center for Science Information
9 IWF Metadata harvester IWF http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects IWF Wissen & Media gGmbH
10 Latin America Open Archive Portal LAOAP http://lanic.utexas.edu LARRP & LANI
11 Latin American knowledge harvester LAKH http://lakh.unm.edu University of New Mexico
12 International Association of Aquatic & Marine Science Libraries & Information Centers IAMSLIC www.iamslic.org IAMSLIC
13 Archives and museum informatics Archimuse www.archimuse.com David Bearman & Jennifer Trant
14 D-Space metadata harvester D-Space www.dspace.org/introductionintro-faculty.html-9k MIT Libra & Hewlett Packard Laboratories
15 Canadian association of research libraries CARL www.david mattison.cal/wordpress/? Canadian association of research libraries
16 Public knowledge project harvester PKP www.pkp.sfu.ca PKP group
17 Ibreo-American Scientific & technical educational consortium ISTEC www.istec.org Ibreo-American Scientific & Technical educational consortium
18 Networked computer science technical research library NCSTRL www.ncstrl.org Networked computer science technical research library
19 Art, Design, Architecture & Media ADAM www.adam.ac.uk ADAM group of UK
20 Association of college and research libraries ACRL www.ala.org American library association
21 Resource Organisation & discovery in subject based services ROADS www.ukoln.ac.uk/roads/harvester Electronic libraries programme of UK
22 NTRS-NASA Technical Reports server NTRS http://ntrs.nasa.gov/ NASA
23 Community Research & Development Information CORDIS www.cordis.europa.eu/data Spanish Council Presidency
24 Rexahn Pharmaceutical RNN www.rareextreme.com/ferums/index.php Rexahn Pharmaceutical
25 Joint information system committee JISC www.jisc.ac.uk JISC board, UK
26 Networked digital libraries of theses & dissertations NDLTD www.alcme.oclc.org Online computer library center
27 SOLINET SOLINET www.solinet.edu University of Alberta
28 Economic & social data services ESDS www.esds.ac.uk/about.asp Economic & social researchCouncil of UK
29 British university's film & video counseling UKOLN www.bufvc.ac.uk British universities film & video counseling
30 METALIS METALIS www.metalis.org Not known
31 UIUC Digital Gateway to Cultural Heritage Materials DGCHM www.uiuc.dgchm.org UNIMP, UK
32 Scholarly publishing & academic resources coalition SPARC www.cni.org Association of research libraries, UK
33 MetaArchive.org MetaArchive.org www.metaarchieve.com Division of telecommunication Research, UK
34 Australian government national archives of Australia AGLS www.naa.gov.au/default.htm Australian Government
35 Global change master directory GCMD www.gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov.html NASA
36 Aristocrat Industries Incorporation ARII www.ncsc.online.org ARII, Australia
37 Deutsche Initiative for Netzwerkin Formation DINI www.dini.de/document/DINI University of Kassel
38 OARiNZ Harvester OARiNZ www.oarinz.ac.nz Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT)
39 California digital library CDL www.cdl.org University of California
40 Digital publishing Technology Center D Pubs www.dpubs.calgary University of Calgary
41 OAIster OAIster www.oaister.umich.edu University of Michigan
42 American South.org American south http://www.americansouth.org/ ---------
43 ARC: A cross archive service ARC www.arc.cs.odu.edu ---------
44 ARCHON ARCHON www.archon.org Not given
45 The Directory of Open Access Repositories DOAR http://www.opendoar.org University of Nottingham
46 SAIL-eprints SAIL eprints http://eprints.bo.cnr.it ---------
47 Sheetmusic Service Sheetmusic http:digital.library.ucla.edu/sheetmusic/librarian? Sheetmusic Consortium
48 Registry of open access repositories ROAR http://archives.eprints.org/ ---------
49 Celestial open archives gateway Celestial http://celestial.eprints.org ---------
50 Experimental OAI Registry at UIUC Experimental, UIUC http://gita.grainger.ui.ac.edu/registry ---------
51 Directory of mathematics Preprint and e-Print servers Mathematics e print http://www.ams.org/global-preprints ---------
52 Digital commons Digital commons http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu">http://digital">http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu ---------
53 Eprints Archive Eprints Archive http://www.eprints.org/software/archives/ ---------
54 Digital Academic repositories DARE http://www.darenet.nl/en ---------
55 Open Language Archives Community Open language http://www.language.archive.org Open Language Archives Community
56 CERN document server CERN http://cdsweb.cern.ch/ ---------
57 TORII, Digital gateway to cultural heritage materials TORII http://torii.digi.edu/ ---------
58 Scirus, the web search engine for scientific information Scirus www.scirus.ac.uk/ ---------
59 Resource discovery network RDN http://www.rdn.ac.uk/ ---------
60 CYCLADES CYCLADES http://nergal.grainger.uiuc.edu OCLC
5.2 Technical Details

The technical details of the metadata harvesting service providers were analysed as shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Technical details of metadata harvesting service providers.

Sr. No. Name of the harvesting service Country Standard Adopted Software Used No. of Repositories being harvested Subject
1 SDL India Dublin core PKP 27 Library & Information Science
2 SJPI India Dublin core PKP 13 Science
3 SEED India Dublin core PKP 4 Engineering
4 Open J Gate India Dublin core PKP 4300+ Multidisciplinary
5 Open Index India Self developed Self developed 16 Multidisciplinary
6 Knowledge Harvester India Dublin core PKP 3 Multidisciplinary
7 CASSIR India Dublin core PKP 18 Science & Technology
8 P-DAINAR India Dublin core PKP 5 Aerospace
9 IWF US Dublin core PKP 17 Multidisciplinary
10 LAOAP US TEI E prints 23 Multidisciplinary
11 LAKH US Dublin core PKP 24 Science
12 IAMSLIC US Dublin core Dspace 27 Multidisciplinary
13 Archimuse US METS, CDWA Lite, MPEG 7 Fedora 600 Multidisciplinary
14 D-Space US Dublin core, © Metadata Dspace 254 Multidisciplinary
15 CARL US METS CDSware 28 Multidisciplinary
16 PKP US Dublin core, NISO MIX, Darwin core E prints 7 Multidisciplinary
17 ISTEC US EAD, LOM, CIDOC CRM PKP, Dspace 286 Multidisciplinary
18 NCSTRL US MODS, METS, Darwin core Dspace 51 Science & Technology
19 ADAM US MODS, EAD, IPTC Fedora 600 Computer science
20 ACRL Germany Dublin core PKP 2500 Multidisciplinary
21 ROADS US TEI CDSware 39 Multidisciplinary
22 NTRS UK EAD, MODS, IPTC ROADS 37 Multidisciplinary
23 CORDIS UK EAD Fedora 31 Multidisciplinary
24 RNN UK Dublin core E prints 3 Multidisciplinary
25 JISC UK TEI, AACR 2, MARC 21 XML CDSware 39 Medicines
26 NDLTD UK TEI, Darwin core Dspace 67 Multidisciplinary
27 SOLINET Germany Dublin core, EAD, TEI CDSware 10 History
28 ESDS UK TEI, DDI PKP 95 Multidisciplinary
29 UKOLN UK METS, GEM, AGLS Fedora 4 Social & Economics
30 METALIS UK TEI, CDWA Lite, GEM CDSware 10 Photography
31 DGCHM UK EAD, TEI, MODS E prints 23 Multidisciplinary
32 SPARC UK EAD, ONIX, Darwin core CDSware 300 Multidisciplinary
33 MetaArchive.org UK EAD, AGLS, LOM PKP 83 Multidisciplinary
34 AGLS UK TEI CDSware 71 Science & Tech.
35 GCMD Australia Dublin core CDSware 10 Multidisciplinary
36 ARII Australia TEI PKP 45 Multidisciplinary
37 DINI Australia EAD Eprints 06 Multidisciplinary
38 OARiNZ New Zealand Dublin core PKP 11 Multidisciplinary
39 CDL Netherlands Dublin core E prints 11 Nuclear science
40 D Pubs Indonesia EAD E prints 61 Multidisciplinary
41 OAIster Indonesia EAD Fedora 1155 Multidisciplinary
42 American south Atlanta Dublin core PKP 86 Multidisciplinary
43 ARC Caribbean Dublin core Dspace 679 General, education
44 ARCHON US Dublin core PKP 32 Physics
45 DOAR Nottingham Dublin core Not known 1473 Multidisciplinary
46 SAIL eprints US Dublin core Not known 53 Science
47 Sheetmusic UK ONIX, IPTC, NISO MIX Dspace 300 Music
48 ROAR US MPEG 7, TEI, MODS Dspace 1418 Multidisciplinary
49 Celestial Italy Dublin core, Darwin core, AGLS PKP 46 Science & Technology
50 Experimental, UIUC US LOM, EAD, MODS HTML 340 Multidisciplinary
51 Mathematics e print US MARC 21 XML, AGLS, Darwin core VITAL 23 Mathematics
52 Digital commons US DDI, METS, NISO MIX Digital Commons 209 Science & Technology
53 Eprints Archive US CIDOC CRM, IPTC, © Metadata Dspace 679 General, education
54 DARE UK METS, LOM ONIX PKP Not mentioned Education
55 Open language Belgium EAD, MODS, NISO MIX Dspace 9 Multidisciplinary
56 CERN US MPEG 7, IPTC, LOM CDSware Not mentioned Science & Technology
57 TORII UK CDWA Lite, LOM Digital Commons 9 Multidisciplinary
58 Scirus UK EAD, LOM Dspace 358 Multidisciplinary, education
59 RDN US Dublin core, CIDOC CRM, TEI Dspace 7 Multidisciplinary
60 CYCLADES US METS, DDI, GILS Eprints 13 Multidisciplinary

From the Table 2 it can be seen that the United States is the leading country when it comes to metadata harvesting service providers: it has 22 service providers (36.66%), followed by the United Kingdom which has 16 (26.66%). Only eight providers (13.33%) were established in India. It can also be observed from Table 2 that Dublin Core is the most popular metadata standard used by metadata harvesting service providers. 25 harvesters (41.66%) use Dublin Core, 21.66% use EAD. AACR2 is used by only one service provider.

PKP is the most popular software used by 31.66% of the service providers, followed by Dspace. 15% of the service providers use CDS ware 37 service providers (61.66%) are multidisciplinary, 6 (10%) are science and technology-specific, 1 (1.66%) harvests metadata in the field of library and information science, and 4 (6.66%) in science and education.

5.3 Analysis of Metadata Generation of Harvesters

Table 3 presents details on metdata generation:

Table 3

Metadata Generation of Harvesters.

Sr. No. Name of the Harvester Type of Metadata Creator of metadata Type of creation Tools used for Metadata creation
    Descriptive Structural Administrative Technical Staff Originator of the resource Machine Generated Human Generated Template Markup Tools Extraction Tools Conversion Tools
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 SEED No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Open J Gate Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 Knowledge Harvester Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
7 CASSIR Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
8 P-DAINAR Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No
9 IWF No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
10 LAOAP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 LAKH Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
12 IAMSLIC Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
13 Archimuse Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 D-Space Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
15 CARL Yes No Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes No
16 PKP No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
17 ISTEC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
18 NCSTRL Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
19 ADAM Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
20 ACRL No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
21 ROADS Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
22 NTRS Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
23 CORDIS Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
24 RNN Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
25 JISC Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
26 NDLTD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
27 SOLINET Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
28 ESDS No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
29 UKOLN Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
31 DGCHM Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
32 SPARC No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes
33 MetaArchive.org Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
34 AGLS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
36 ARII Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
37 DINI No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
38 OARiNZ Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
39 CDL No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
40 D Pubs Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
41 OAIster Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
42 American south No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
43 ARC Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
44 ARCHON No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
45 DOAR Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
46 SAIL eprints Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
47 Sheetmusic Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
48 ROAR Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
49 Celestial Yes Yes Yes Yes   No Yes Yes No Yes No
50 Experimental, UIUC No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
51 Mathematics eprint Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
52 Digital commons Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
53 Eprints Archive Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
54 DARE Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
55 Open language No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
56 CERN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
57 TORII Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
58 Scirus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
59 RDN Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
60 CYCLADES Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes

From Table 3 it can be observed that 48 harvesters (80%) produce descriptive metadata, 53 (88.33%) structural metadata and 51 (85%) administrative metadata. In 51 cases (85%) the metadata are generated automatically and in 45 cases (75%) they are produced manually. 49 Harvesters (81.66%) use templates for metadata creation, 49 (81.66%) use mark-up tools, 52 (86.66%) use extraction tools and 49 (81.66%) use conversion tools for metadata generation.

5.4 Analysis of Metadata Generation Tools

Table 4 shows the tools used for metadata generation:

Table 4

Metadata Generation Tools.

Sr. No. Name of the harvesting service New record creation Record
      Edition Validation Withdrawal Redeposition
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 SEED Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Open J Gate Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 Knowledge Harvester Yes Yes Yes Yes No
7 CASSIR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
8 P-DAINAR Yes No Yes Yes Yes
9 IWF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
10 LAOAP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 LAKH Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12 IAMSLIC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
13 Archimuse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 D-Space Yes No Yes Yes Yes
15 CARL Yes Yes Yes Yes No
16 PKP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
17 ISTEC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
18 NCSTRL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
19 ADAM Yes No Yes Yes Yes
20 ACRL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
21 ROADS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
22 NTRS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
23 CORDIS Yes No Yes Yes No
24 RNN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
25 JISC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
26 NDLTD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
27 SOLINET Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
28 ESDS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
29 UKOLN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes No Yes Yes No
31 DGCHM Yes No Yes Yes Yes
32 SPARC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
33 MetaArchive.org Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
34 AGLS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes Yes Yes Yes No
36 ARII Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
37 DINI Yes No Yes Yes Yes
38 OARiNZ Yes Yes Yes Yes No
39 CDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
40 D Pubs Yes No Yes Yes No
41 OAIster Yes No Yes Yes Yes
42 American south Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
43 ARC Yes No Yes Yes No
44 ARCHON Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
45 DOAR Yes Yes Yes Yes No
46 SAIL eprints Yes No Yes Yes Yes
47 Sheetmusic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
48 ROAR Yes No Yes Yes Yes
49 Celestial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 Experimental, UIUC Yes No Yes Yes No
51 Mathematics eprint Yes No Yes Yes Yes
52 Digital commons Yes Yes Yes Yes No
53 Eprints Archive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
54 DARE Yes No Yes Yes Yes
55 Open language Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
56 CERN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
57 TORII Yes No Yes Yes No
58 Scirus Yes Yes Yes Yes No
59 RDN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 CYCLADES Yes No Yes Yes No

From Table 4 it can be observed that all the 60 harvesters (100%) facilitate new record generation, 43 (71.67%) have facilities for editing records and 53 (88.33%) provide record redeposition provision. All the service providers supply record validation and withdrawal services.

5.5 Metadata Preservation Tools

These are the metadata preservation tools used (Table 5):

Table 5

Metadata Preservation Tools.

Sr.No. Name of the harvesting service Provenance Authenticity Preservation activity Technical environment Rights management
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 SEED No Yes Yes No Yes
4 Open J Gate Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 Knowledge Harvester Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
7 CASSIR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
8 P-DAINAR Yes No Yes Yes Yes
9 IWF Yes Yes Yes No No
10 LAOAP Yes Yes No Yes Yes
11 LAKH Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12 IAMSLIC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
13 Archimuse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 D-Space Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
15 CARL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
16 PKP No Yes Yes Yes Yes
17 ISTEC Yes Yes Yes Yes No
18 NCSTRL Yes Yes No Yes Yes
19 ADAM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
20 ACRL Yes Yes Yes No Yes
21 ROADS No No Yes Yes Yes
22 NTRS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
23 CORDIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
24 RNN Yes Yes Yes Yes No
25 JISC Yes Yes No Yes Yes
26 NDLTD No Yes Yes Yes Yes
27 SOLINET Yes No Yes Yes Yes
28 ESDS Yes Yes Yes No Yes
29 UKOLN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
31 DGCHM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
32 SPARC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
33 MetaArchive.org Yes Yes No Yes Yes
34 AGLS No Yes Yes Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes No Yes Yes No
36 ARII Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
37 DINI No Yes Yes No Yes
38 OARiNZ Yes Yes No Yes No
39 CDL Yes No Yes Yes Yes
40 D Pubs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
41 OAIster Yes Yes Yes No No
42 American south Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
43 ARC Yes Yes No Yes Yes
44 ARCHON Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
45 DOAR Yes Yes Yes No Yes
46 SAIL eprints Yes No Yes Yes No
47 Sheetmusic Yes Yes No Yes Yes
48 ROAR No Yes Yes Yes Yes
49 Celestial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 Experimental, UIUC Yes Yes Yes No Yes
51 Mathematics e print Yes No Yes Yes Yes
52 Digital commons No Yes Yes Yes No
53 Eprints Archive Yes Yes No Yes Yes
54 DARE Yes Yes Yes No Yes
55 Open language No Yes Yes Yes Yes
56 CERN Yes No Yes Yes Yes
57 TORII Yes Yes No Yes No
58 Scirus No Yes Yes No Yes
59 RDN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 CYCLADES Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Table 5 shows that 49 (81.66%) consider provenance for metadata preservation, 52 (86.66%) authenticity, 51 (85%) preservation activity, 50 (83.33%) technical environment and 51 (85%) consider rights management for metadata preservation.

5.6 Analysis of Metadata Elements

Table 6 shows the metadata elements used by the metadata harvesting service providers.

Table 6

Use of metadata elements.

Sr. No. Name of the Repository Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes
3 SEED Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Open J Gate No Yes No No No Yes Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 Knowledge Harvester Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
7 CASSIR Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
8 P-DAINAR Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
9 IWF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
10 LAOAP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 LAKH Yes Yes No No Yes No No
12 IAMSLIC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
13 Archimuse No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 D-Space Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
15 CARL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
16 PKP Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
17 ISTEC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
18 NCSTRL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
19 ADAM Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
20 ACRL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
21 ROADS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
22 NTRS Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes
23 CORDIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
24 RNN No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
25 JISC Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
26 NDLTD Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
27 SOLINET Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
28 ESDS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
29 UKOLN No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
31 DGCHM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
32 SPARC Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
33 MetaArchive.org No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
34 AGLS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
36 ARII Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
37 DINI No Yes Yes No No No Yes
38 OARiNZ Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
39 CDL Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
40 D Pubs Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
41 OAIster Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
42 American south Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
43 ARC No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
44 ARCHON Yes No No No Yes Yes No
45 DOAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
46 SAIL eprints Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
47 Sheetmusic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
48 ROAR Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
49 Celestial No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
50 Experimental, UIUC Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
51 Mathematics e print Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
52 Digital commons Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
53 Eprints Archive Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
54 DARE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
55 Open language Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
56 CERN No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
57 TORII Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
58 Scirus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
59 RDN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 CYCLADES No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes

50 harvesters (83.33%) use title, 53 (88.33%) creator, 47 (78.33%) subject, 46 (76.66%) description, 50 (83.33%) publisher, 51 (85%) contributor and 51 (85%) use date as metadata element.

5.7 User Support System

Metadata harvesting service providers maintain a strong user support system, which helps the user to navigate with ease and retrieve relevant documents. The user support systems are described in Table 7.

Table 7

User support system.

Sr. No. Name of the Repository Navigation links Browse Interface Simple search interface Advanced search interface Result Set Processing Sorting Fields Hit Frequency Display Record Usage Statistics Duplicate record detection Standardization of Archive names Cross Citation Alerting services Archive search service
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
3 SEED Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No
4 Open J Gate Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 Knowledge Harvester No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
7 CASSIR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
8 P-DAINAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
9 IWF Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
10 LAOAP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 LAKH No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes No
12 IAMSLIC Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
13 Archimuse Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
14 D-Space Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
15 CARL Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
16 PKP No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
17 ISTEC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
18 NCSTRL Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
19 ADAM No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
20 ACRL Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No
21 ROADS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
22 NTRS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
23 CORDIS No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
24 RNN Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
25 JISC Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
26 NDLTD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
27 SOLINET No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
28 ESDS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
29 UKOLN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
31 DGCHM Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
32 SPARC No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
33 MetaArchive.org Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
34 AGLS Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
36 ARII No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
37 DINI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
38 OARiNZ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
39 CDL Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
40 D Pubs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
41 OAIster Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
42 American south Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
43 ARC Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
44 ARCHON Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
45 DOAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
46 SAIL eprints No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
47 Sheetmusic Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
48 ROAR Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
49 Celestial Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 Experimental, UIUC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
51 Mathematics eprint Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
52 Digital commons Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
53 Eprints Archive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
54 DARE Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
55 Open language Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
56 CERN No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
57 TORII Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
58 Scirus Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
59 RDN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 CYCLADES Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Fifty service providers (83.33%) provide navigation links, simple & advanced Search; alerting services are provided by 52 harvesters (86.66%). Duplicate record deletion is the feature of 88.33% of the harvesters.

5.8 Display Options

The display options provided by each harvester are shown in Table 8.

Table 8

Display options.

Sr. No. Name of the Repository Title Author Date stamp Discovery date Archives Subject Hit Frequency Citations hits
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 SEED Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Open J Gate Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
6 Knowledge Harvester No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
7 CASSIR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
8 P-DAINAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
9 IWF Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
10 LAOAP Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 LAKH Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12 IAMSLIC Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
13 Archimuse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 D-Space Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
15 CARL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
16 PKP No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
17 ISTEC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
18 NCSTRL Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
19 ADAM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
20 ACRL Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
21 ROADS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
22 NTRS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
23 CORDIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
24 RNN Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
25 JISC Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
26 NDLTD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
27 SOLINET Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
28 ESDS Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
29 UKOLN Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
31 DGCHM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
32 SPARC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
33 MetaArchive.org Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
34 AGLS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
36 ARII No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
37 DINI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
38 OARiNZ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
39 CDL Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
40 D Pubs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
41 OAIster Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
42 American south Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
43 ARC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
44 ARCHON Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
45 DOAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
46 SAIL eprints Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
47 Sheetmusic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
48 ROAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
49 Celestial No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
50 Experimental, UIUC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
51 Mathematics e print Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
52 Digital commons Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
53 Eprints Archive Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
54 DARE Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
55 Open language Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
56 CERN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
57 TORII Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
58 Scirus No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
59 RDN Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
60 CYCLADES Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

55 service providers (91.66%) display the title metadata element, 54 (90%) the author, 55 (91.66%) the date stamp, 55 (91.66%) the discovery date, 56 (93.33%) the name of the archive, 53 (88.33%) the subject of the content, 56 (93.33%) the hit frequency and 53 (88.33%) citation hits.

5.9 Error Elements

The error elements are shown in Table 9.

Table 9

Error elements.

NSr. No. Name of the Repository Bad argument Bad resumption token Bad verb Cannot disseminate Format Id does not exist No records match No metadata formats No set Hierarch
1 SDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 SJPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 SEED Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
4 Open J Gate No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
5 Open Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
6 Knowledge Harvester Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
7 CASSIR Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
8 P-DAINAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
9 IWF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
10 LAOAP Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
11 LAKH No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12 IAMSLIC Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
13 Archimuse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14 D-Space Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
15 CARL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
16 PKP Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
17 ISTEC No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
18 NCSTRL No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
19 ADAM Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
20 ACRL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
21 ROADS Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
22 NTRS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
23 CORDIS Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
24 RNN No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
25 JISC Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
26 NDLTD Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
27 SOLINET No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
28 ESDS Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
29 UKOLN Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
30 METALIS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
31 DGCHM No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
32 SPARC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
33 MetaArchive.org Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
34 AGLS Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
35 GCMD Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
36 ARII Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
37 DINI Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
38 OARiNZ No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
39 CDL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
40 D Pubs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
41 OAIster Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No
42 American south Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
43 ARC Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
44 ARCHON No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
45 DOAR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
46 SAIL eprints Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
47 Sheetmusic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
48 ROAR Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
49 Celestial Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
50 Experimental, UIUC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
51 Mathematics e print No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
52 Digital commons Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
53 Eprints Archive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
54 DARE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
55 Open language Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
56 CERN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
57 TORII No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
58 Scirus Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
59 RDN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 CYCLADES Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes

Sometimes, metadata records are not displayed due to some error and these errors can be of numerous types. 49 (81.66%) harvesters show bad argument, 50 (83.33%) bad resumption token, 53 (88.33%) bad verb, 50 (83.33%) can't disseminate format, 51 (85%) ID doesn't exist, 52 (86.66%) no record match, 51 (85%) no ID match, and 49 (81.66%) no set hierarch.

6. Findings

Sixty major metadata harvesting service providers were studied from around the world, eight of which are from India.

The United States is the leading country when it comes to metadata harvesting service providers, followed by the United Kingdom. Among the eight Indian service providers four are disciplinary and the other four are general. These are: Search Digital Libraries, Scientific Journal Publishing in India: Indexing and Online Management (SJPI), Search Engine for Engineering Digital Repositories (SEED), Open J-Gate, Open Index Initiative, Knowledge Harvester, Cross Archive Search Service for Indian Repositories (CASSIR) and Prototype Digital Archive of Indian Aerospace Research (P-DAINAR).

Indian service providers use PKP software for harvesting while Dspace is used by most of the other international harvesters. The majority of the service providers are multidisciplinary. In India Dspace is the most widely used software, followed by eprints. Most of the service providers allow all types of searches like simple search, advanced search, keyword search, author search and subject search.

The majority of the service providers use the Dublin core format for displaying metadata; most do not have an express metadata policy. The metadata harvesting service providers are OAI-compliant and use OAI as metadata prefix support. They use gzip compression for data downloading, they all keep trace of deleted records, and their date granularity form is YYYY-MM-DD.

Metadata harvesting service providers maintain a strong user support system, which helps the user to navigate with ease and retrieve relevant documents. The service providers verify the integrity and authenticity of digital documents by avoiding spoofing (one organisation supplying misleading metadata for a resource belonging to another organisation) and spamming (artificially repeating keywords to boost a page's ranking). A Cross-Archive Service (ARC) is an experimental research service, used to investigate issues in harvesting OAI-compliant repositories and making them accessible through a unified search interface. It is not a production service and may be subject to unscheduled service interruptions and anomalies.

7. Conclusions

The World Wide Web has created a revolution in the accessibility of information. The development and application of metadata represents a major improvement in the way information can be discovered and used. New technologies, standards, and best practices are continually advancing the applications for metadata. The Open Access movement aims to provide free and open access literature to the scholarly community on the web. In order to be successful in its noble cause, such vehicles must have strong metadata systems. In order to make open access literature globally accessible, Open Access Initiatives worldwide are adopting advanced and developed metadata tools, techniques, standards and softwares to create, preserve and harvest the metadata. A number of metadata harvesting service providers are doing excellent work in harvesting open access vehicles and open access literature scattered on the web.

Websites Referred to in the Text

UKOLN website on metadata, http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata (retrieved 10 July 2009).

References
ALCTS/CCS/Committee on Cataloging (2000), Description and Access. Task Force on Metadata, Final Report, June 16, http://www.libraries.psu.edu-/tas/jca/ccda/tf-meta6.html (retrieved 25 July 2009).
Baker, T. (2009), DCMI Usage Board review of application profiles, http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/profiles/index.shtml (retrieved 12 July 2009).
Coleman, Nye Pamela (2008), ‘Using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting’, The American Archivist 71(2), pp. 569–571.
Hodge, Gail (2003), Metadata Made Simpler. Bethesda, MD.: NISO Press, http://www.niso.org/news/Metadata_simpler.pdf. (retrieved 5 August 2009).
Munshi, Usha Mujoo (2009), ‘Building Subject Gateway in a Shifting Digital World’, DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology 29(2), p. 9.






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